Forest Systems <p><strong>Forest Systems</strong> is an open access scientific journal published by <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">CSIC</a> and edited by the <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria</a> that features original and unpublished articles. <strong>Forest Systems</strong> aims to integrate multidisciplinary and multi-scale research in forest systems under diverse social and ecological background. Our policy is the publication of all topics regarding forest and agroforestry management and restoration; forest ecology and conservation; forest genetics; biotic and abiotic interactions in forests (including climate change); new technologies and remote sensing applied to forest; bioeconomy and forest policy; forest products; and wildfires and integrated fire management.</p> <p><strong>Forest Systems</strong>, known as “Investigacion Agraria: Sistemas y Recursos Forestales” until 2010, was founded in 1991, the precesor of which was “Anales del Instituto Forestal de Investigaciones y Experiencias”. It is available online since 2003, in PDF, HTML and XML-JATS formats. Its printed edition was maintained until 2015, when it became an electronic-only journal. Contents of previous issues are also available in PDF files.</p> <p><strong>Forest Systems</strong> is indexed in <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Web of Science</a>; <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">SCOPUS</a>, <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">DOAJ</a> and other national and international databases.</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (2 years): <strong>0.700</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Impact Factor (JIF)</strong> 2022 (5 years): <strong>1.500</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JIF:</strong> <strong>59</strong>/69 (Q4, Forestry)<br>Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Journal Citation Indicator (JCI)</strong> 2022: <strong>0.31</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Rank by JCI:</strong> <strong>59</strong>/88 (Q3, Forestry)<br>Source: <a title="Clarivate Analytics" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Clarivate Analytics</a>©, <a title="JCR" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Journal Citation Reports</a>®</p> <p><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor / Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.00037</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Article influence/ Percentile</strong> 2022: <strong>0.279</strong><br><strong style="color: #800000;">Eigenfactor Category:</strong> Forestry<br>Source: University of Washington©, <a href=";searchby=issn&amp;orderby=year" target="_blank" rel="noopener">EigenFACTOR</a>®</p> <table style="width: 100%; border-spacing: 0px; border-collapse: collapse; margin-top: 20px;"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Diamond Open Access</p> <p class="check">No Article Proccesing Charges</p> <p class="check">Indexed</p> <p class="check">Original Content</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">Peer Review</p> <p class="check">Reviewer Credits</p> <p class="check">Digital Identifiers</p> <p class="check">Digital Preservation</p> </td> <td style="width: 33%; text-align: left; vertical-align: top;"> <p class="check">PDF, HTML, XML</p> <p class="check">Online First</p> <p class="check">Ethical Code</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) en-US Forest Systems 2171-5068 <p><strong>© CSIC.</strong> Manuscripts published in both the printed and online versions of this Journal are the property of <strong>Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas</strong>, and quoting this source is a requirement for any partial or full reproduction.</p> <p>All contents of this electronic edition, except where otherwise noted, are distributed under a “<strong>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International</strong>” (CC BY 4.0) License. You may read here the <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">basic information</a></strong> and the <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">legal text</a></strong> of the license. The indication of the CC BY 4.0 License must be expressly stated in this way when necessary.</p> <p>Self-archiving in repositories, personal webpages or similar, of any version other than the published by the Editor, is not allowed.</p> A review on oak decline: The global situation, causative factors, and new research approaches <p>Oak decline as a complex syndrome is one of the most relevant forest diseases worldwide. This disease has a complex and multifactorial nature, and this has caused conventional methods in plant pathology not to provide researchers with a correct and comprehensive analysis of oak decline. This issue entails the need for a multidisciplinary approach in examining and evaluating the disease, which will provide researchers with a more exhaustive understanding of the disease. The present review examines the concept of decline, the factors that contribute to the occurrence and development of the disease, its global distribution, and indexes used in the assessment of the disease. Furthermore, it draws attention to various research approaches that have been utilized to investigate oak decline.</p> Mojegan KOWSARI Ebrahim KARIMI Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 32 3 eR01 eR01 10.5424/fs/2023323-20265 An evaluation of various probability density functions for predicting diameter distributions in pure and mixed-species stands in Türkiye <p><em>Aim of study:</em> To assess the capabilities of some infrequently used probability density functions (PDFs) in modeling stand diameter distributions and compare their performance to that of typical PDFs.</p> <p><em>Area of study: </em>The research was conducted in pure and mixed stands located in the OF Planning Unit of the Trabzon Forest Regional Directorate in Northern Türkiye.</p> <p><em>Material and methods:</em> A set of 17,324 DBH measurements, originating from 608 sample plots located in stands of even-aged and pure and mixed stands, were obtained to represent various stand conditions such as site quality, age, and stand density in OF planning unit forests. In order to ensure a minimum of 30-40 trees in each sample plot, the plot sizes ranged from 0.04 to 0.08 hectares, depending on stand density. The parameters of PDFs include Weibull with 3P and 2P, Rice, Rayleigh, Normal, Nagakami, Lognormal with 2P and 3P, Lévy with 1p and 2P, Laplace, Kumaraswamy, Johnson’s S<sub>B</sub>, and Gamma were estimated using the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) prediction procedure. Additionally, the goodness of fit test was combined with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (statistically at a 95% confidence interval).</p> <p><em>Main results:</em> The Rayleigh distribution was the model that best explained the diameter distributions of pure and mixed forests in the OF Planning Unit (as Fit Index (FI) = 0.6743 and acceptance rate 96.4% based on the result of one sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test).</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> Less commonly used PDFs such as Rice, Nakagami, and Kumaraswamy-4P demonstrated superior predictive performance compared to some traditional distributions widely used in forestry, including Weibull-2P and -3P, Johnson’s S<sub>B</sub>, Normal, Gamma-3P, and Lognormal-3P.</p> Abdurrahman SAHIN Ilker ERCANLI Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-08-28 2023-08-28 32 3 e016 e016 10.5424/fs/2023323-20130 Characterization of the dynamics of the successional stages of the Amazon forest using Google Earth Engine <p><em>Aim of study: </em>This study evaluates the potential of the Google Earth Engine tool, supported by fine-scale information obtained by Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, to apply and characterize the dynamics of the successional stages of the Amazon Forest in the state of Rondônia over ten years.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: The study was carried out in the state of Rondônia located in the North Region of Brazil (Western Amazon).</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: The data and its by-products were derived from the Landsat Level 1 - TOA collection of the United States Geological Survey, specifically Landsat 5 and 8. The mapping also used Phantom 4 Pro UAV images. We used the supervised classifier Random Forest to map the primary forest/advanced regeneration, medium regeneration, initial regeneration, and classes, and, subsequently, we crossed and quantified the successional advance and vegetation loss.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: It was observed that the state lost forest area even with the successional advance that occurred throughout the period, implying that the forest succession was insufficient in the face of forest deforestation.</p> <p><em>Research highlights:</em> This study contributed to understanding the dynamics of the Amazon Forest, which goes through a process of deforestation and forest regeneration simultaneously.</p> Iací D. SANTOS-BRASIL Ana P. DALLA-CORTE Carlos R. SANQUETTA Nelson YOSHIHIRO-NAKAJIMA Marks MELO-MOURA Carla T. PERTILLE Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-10-23 2023-10-23 32 3 e017 e017 10.5424/fs/2023323-20222 Evaluation of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens as a biocontrol agent against oak decline disease in Quercus trees <p><em>Aim of study</em>: This study aimed to investigate the biocontrol potential of <em>Bacillus amyloliquefaciens</em> against <em>Phytophthora cinnamomi</em> infection in <em>Quercus suber</em> (cork oak). Both <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in planta</em> experiments were conducted to assess the effectiveness of <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em> as a biocontrol agent.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: The microorganism strains, <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em> and <em>P. cinnamomi</em>, as well as the embryogenic lines of <em>Q. suber</em> used, have a Spanish origin.</p> <p><em>Material and methods</em>: <em>In vitro</em> experiments involved evaluating the inhibitory effects of <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em> on <em>P. cinnamomi</em> growth through dual-inoculated agar plates. <em>In planta</em>, dual inoculation tests were performed by co-inoculating plantlets with both <em>P. cinnamomi</em> and <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em>. Physiological parameters, such as photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, and oxidative stress markers, were measured. All experiments were conducted under controlled conditions.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: <em>In vitro</em> experiments revealed the inhibitory effects of <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em> on <em>P. cinnamomi</em> growth. Infected plantlets displayed symptoms of root infection. Dual inoculation tests resulted in plant survival against <em>P. cinnamomi</em> infection. Analysis of physiological parameters indicated variations among treatments and clones, highlighting the distinct response of <em>Q. suber</em> plantlets to the pathogen and underscoring the importance of genetic variability for disease management.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: This study provides insights into the potential of a strain of <em>B. amyloliquefaciens</em> as a biocontrol agent against <em>P. cinnamomi</em> infection in cork oak. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of susceptibility and resistance in different clones of <em>Q. suber</em>.</p> Aranzazu GÓMEZ-GARAY José A. MANZANERA Raquel del CAMPO Beatriz PINTOS Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-10-31 2023-10-31 32 3 e019 e019 10.5424/fs/2023323-20625 A low altitude forest dwelling Pyrenean chamois population increases the potential habitat of this subspecies <p><em>Aim of the study</em>: To demonstrate if a population of Pyrenean chamois <em>Rupicapra p. pyrenaica</em> can live at low altitudes all year long. This could enlarge dramatically its potential habitat.</p> <p><em>Area of study</em>: A hunting ground in Sobrarbe County, Pyrenees, Spain, in 2022.</p> <p><em>Material and methods. </em>We interviewed local hunters to find out when the presence of the subspecies in the area dates back. We performed block counts from April to December in the target area for calculating the size of the population.</p> <p><em>Main results</em>: There was a presence of at least 15 years of the subspecies living at 600 m asl. The population was at least 18 animals, reproduces, and shows a normal demographic structure of kids, yearlings, adult females, and adult males.</p> <p><em>Research highlights</em>: Low-altitude chamois populations living in forests could be a result of important ecological changes in high mountain pastures producing migrations to newly suitable areas as low-altitude forests. The potential habitat of the subspecies should be broadened.</p> Juan HERRERO Alicia GARCÍA-SERRANO Carlos FÉLEZ Fernando HERRERO Alberto MACHUCA Bosco PONZ Santiago SANCHO Copyright (c) 2023 CSIC_INIA 2023-08-24 2023-08-24 32 3 eSC03 eSC03 10.5424/fs/2023323-20521 Editorial Board 32 (3) Journal Editorial Office FS Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-11-15 2023-11-15 32 3 Fungal diversity and colonization in roots seed trees of Swietenia macrophylla King (Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae) in the tropical rainforest of Laguna Om, Quintana Roo, Mexico <p><em>Aim</em> <em>of</em> <em>study</em>: (i) To investigate the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with the roots of seed trees stands in a conserved and natural population of mahogany (<em>Swietenia</em> <em>macrophylla</em>), based on rDNA sequences; and (ii) to evaluate the dual colonization by AMF and dark septate fungi (DSF), showing the types of fungal colonization patterns in the dry season.</p> <p><em>Area</em> <em>of</em> <em>study</em>: Tropical rainforest of Ejido Laguna Om, Quintana Roo, Mexico.</p> <p><em>Material</em> <em>and</em> <em>methods</em>: We evaluated the AMF and DSF colonization in secondary root segments of ten adult trees of mahogany. We analysed the diversity of AMF in one composite sample of mahogany roots (three trees) using 18S rDNA gene with Illumina MiSeq platform.</p> <p><em>Main</em> <em>results</em>: Through metabarcoding 14 virtual taxa belonging mainly to the genus <em>Glomus</em> and <em>Diversispora</em>&nbsp;were obtained, VTX00186 being the most abundant. The percentages of colonization for the different fungal structures were hyphae 80%, vesicles 18%, coils 2%, and arbuscules 0.5%; for DSF, 60% hyphae and 12% microsclerotia. The <em>Paris-</em>type colonization predominated with 61% in the roots.</p> <p><em>Research</em> <em>highlights</em>: The knowledge of the AMF diversity present in natural mahogany forests will allow the selection of species for inoculation management seeking to enhance seedling survival and growth of this species.</p> Guadalupe SÁNCHEZ-REYES Luis A. LARA-PÉREZ Luis A. SÁENZ-CARBONELL Víctor H. RODRÍGUEZ-MORELOS Fernando CASANOVA-LUGO Angélica NAVARRO-MARTÍNEZ Carlos A. PUCH-HAU Iván OROS-ORTEGA Copyright (c) 2023 Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC) 2023-10-25 2023-10-25 32 3 e018 e018 10.5424/fs/2023323-19614